The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud , who retained the term psychoanalysis for his own school of thought,  and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Psychoanalysis was later developed in different directions, mostly by students of Freud, such as Alfred Adler and his collaborator, Carl Gustav Jung , [iii] as well as by neo-Freudian thinkers, such as Erich Fromm , Karen Horney , and Harry Stack Sullivan. Psychoanalysis has been known to be a controversial discipline, and its validity as a science is often contested. Nonetheless, it remains a strong influence within psychiatry , more so in some quarters than others. The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include: . During psychoanalytic sessions, typically lasting 50 minutes,  ideally 4—5 times a week,  the patient or analysand may lie on a couch, with the analyst often sitting just behind and out of sight.
PSYCHOANALYSIS | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary
By Saul McLeod , published , updated The primary assumption of psychoanalysis is the belief that all people possess unconscious thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i. It is only having a cathartic i. Remember, psychoanalysis is a therapy as well as a theory. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. In psychoanalysis therapy Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind them taking notes while they told him about their dreams and childhood memories.
A method of treating mental illness, originating with Sigmund Freud , in which a psychiatrist analyst helps a patient discover and confront the causes of the illness. Many psychiatrists believe that these causes are buried deep in the unconscious of the patient and can be brought to the surface through such techniques as hypnosis and the analysis of dreams. Psychoanalysis emphasizes that mental illness usually originates in repressed sexual desires or traumas in childhood. How many can you keep straight?
Freud's ideas about treating the troubled mind continue to influence our thinking about human behavior. Sigmund Freud was born in , and his contributions are being debated, discussed, and celebrated from Vienna to New York at conferences and in publications ranging from news magazines to scholarly journals. Freud's writings about psychoanalysis helped define the field of psychology in the 20th century and are objects of study in such diverse fields as literature, intellectual history, and the history of science. Repression, denial, dream analysis — these are all familiar concepts, thanks to Freud and his contributions to our views on human nature.